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Review Materi Management File dan Linux File Permissions

November27

 

 Hai Hey Huy apa kabar teman-teman ? 😀 ~
oiya kemarin waktu praktikum Sistem Operasi saya mendapatkan ilmu baru yaitu tentang materi Management file dan Linux File Permissions ~

okeeeeee Cheekidoooooooooooot ~ 😀

Pengertian Management file yaitu

            metode dan struktur data yang digunakan sistem operasi untuk mengatur dan mengorganisir file pada disk atau partisi. File sistem juga dapat diartikan sebagai partisi atau disk yang digunakan untuk menyimpan file-file dalam cara tertentu.

Fungsi utama dalam manajemen file dan direktori adalah sorting,copying, moving dan deleting.

1.Sorting

Untuk menampilkan daftar file yang di urutkan secara alphabet biasanya kita menggunakan perintah ‘$ ls’

2. Copying
Untuk menyalin file atau direktori. atau di terminal bisa mengetikan $ cp ..

3. Moving
Untuk memindahkan file atau direktori.  atau di terminal bisa mengetikan $ mv …

4. Deleting
Untuk menghapus file, atau di terminal bisa mengetikan $ rm …

Selain yang di atas ada juga fungsinya yaitu :

5. Membuat file kosong, dengan perintah $ touch namafile

6. Mencari file atau direktori dengan perintah $ find namafile

7. Mengompresi direktori dengan perintah $ gzip namadirektori bise juga dengan bzip2 namadirektori

Sorting

Untuk menampilkan daftar file yang di urutkan secara alphabet biasanya kita menggunakan perintah ‘$ ls’. Nah, disini terdapat perintah perintah lain untuk mengurutkan file sesuai kebutuhan readers. Apa saja kah ituuu?

$ ls –lt  = akan mengurutkan daftar file berdasarkan waktu (dari yang terbaru hingga yang terlama).

 $ ls –lS = akan mengurutkan daftar file berdasarkan ukuran (dari yang terbesar hingga yang terkecil)

$ ls –lrt = akan mengurutkan daftar file berdasarkan waktu (dari yang terlama hingga yang terbaru)

$ ls –lrS = akan mengurutkan daftar file berdasarkan ukuran (dari yang terkecil hingga yang terbesar)

Copying, Moving, dan Deleting File and Directory

cp = Digunakan untuk menyalin satu atau banyak file atau direktori

mv = digunakan untuk memindahkan atau memberi nama baru pada satu atau banyak file atau direktori

rm = digunakan untuk menghapus satu atau banyak file atau direktori

-f atau –force = memungkinkan cp untuk mencoba menghapus file yang sudah ada walaupun file tidak dapat ditulis

-i atau –interactive = akan meminta konfirmasi sebelum mencoba untuk mengganti file yang ada.

-b atau –backup = akan membuat cadangan dari file yang akan diganti.

Selain itu, ada mode lain untuk melihat daftar direktori, dengan menambahkan –l yang berarti long dan –a yang berarti all. Itu merupakan perintah melihat daftar direktori dengan format panjang. Dengan hasil sebagai berikut :

ls -al

total 24

drwxrwxr-x. 2 user group 4096 2009-08-11 21:21 .

drwx——   . 35 user group 4096 2009-08-12 10:55 ..

Kolom pertama menunjukan jenis file dan perizinan, kolom kedua menunjukan jumlah link, kolom ketiga menunjukan pemilik file, dan kolom ke empat menunjukan kelompok pemilik file. Kolom lain untuk menunjukan ukuran file.

Karakter pertama menunjukkan :

  • d = directory
  • –  = regular file
  • l = symbolic link
  • s = Unix domain socket
  • p = named pipe
  • c = character device file
  • b = block device file

Ada 9 karakter berikutnya menyatakan perizinan. Dibagi menjadi 3 grup, tiap grup 3 karakter mewakili: read, write, dan execute. Karakter tersebut mudah untuk diingat, diantaranya :

  • r = read permission
  • w = write permission
  • x = execute permission
  • –  = no permission

Disini Ada juga Cara membuat banyak direktori:

$ mkdir dir1 dir2

Jika ingin membuat direktori bersub-sub (bersarang) bisa mengetikan sebagai berikut :

$ mkdir –p d1/d2/d3

*-p artinya parent

Menghapus direktori:

$ rmdir –p d1/d2/d3 dir1 dir2

*direktori harus dalam keadaan kosong

Menghapus direktori secara Rekursif:

$ rm –r dl

Membuat file baru:

$ touch file1 file2

Mencari di file di current directory dengan nama text

$ find . –name “text”

Kompresi File

Ketika kita ingin membuat cadangan file, asip atau mengirimkan file dalam jumlah yang banyak biasanya kita menggunakan kompresi. Ada dua program yang popular untuk kompresi, yaitu gzip dan bzip. Apa bedanya dan bagaimana cara mengkompresinya?

Kompresi dengan gzip

$ gzip services

Bagaimana dengan dekompresi pada gzip?

$ gzip –d services .gz

Kompresi dengan bzip2

$ bzip2 services

Dekompresinya adalah

$ bunzip2 services

Materi Ke 2 yaitu Linux File Permissions

chekidoooooooooooooot ~ yumriiiiiiiiiiiiiii 😀

Apa ayoo Tujuan dari hak akses file dalam Linux~ ?

                  Tujuan adanya hak akses file dalam linux adalah untuk menjaga file penting yang dimilki user agar tetap aman, baik dari kesalahan pihak luar atau kesalahan user sendiri. Hal itu dikarenakan linux dirancang untuk multi user atau banyak pengguna, sehingga dengan banyaknya pengguna tersebut, setiap pengguna dapat mengakses file. Jika file yang ada penting dan hanya beberapa user yang dapat mengaksesnya maka digunakanlah hak akses file tersebut. Untuk mencegah terjadinya akses-akses ilegal terhadap file yang dimiliki oleh user tertentu, maka pada linux dibuat status izin akses file dimana setiap file memiliki informasi untuk mengatur siapa saja yang berhak untuk membaca, menjalankan atau mengubah file tersebut. Ketika sebuah file atau direktori dibuat, maka file atau direktori tersebut kepemilikikannya akan melekat pada suatu user dan group tertentu.

Apa Kepemilikan hak file(hak akses file ini) ???

               Kepemilikan file di sistem linux dimiliki oleh pengguna tertentu dan grup. Hak akses di dalam sistem filenya menjadi user, grup dan other atau lain-lain. User adalah username dari orang yang memiliki file tersebut atau pengguna yang menciptakan file tersebut adalah pemiliknya. Grup adalah grup user yang memiliki file tersebut. Semua pengguna yang termasuk ke dalam kelompok yang memiliki file tersebut akan memiliki hak akses yang sama ke file. Other adalah seorang pengguna yang bukan pemilik file tersebut dan tidak termasuk dalam kelompok yang sama.

Pengertian user , Grup , dan Others :

Userusername orang yg memiliki file. Secara default, pengguna yg menciptakan file tersebut akan menjadi pemilik file tersebut.

Grup: Grup User yang memiliki File tersebut. Semua pengguna yang masuk ke dalam kelompok mempunyai hak akses yang sama untuk file tersebut.

Others: Pengguna yang bukan pemilik file dan tisak masuk ke dalam kelompok yang sama. Dengan kata lain jika readers menetapkan izin untuk ‘others’ maka orang yg tidak memiliki file atau grup inilah yang akan terkena pengaruhnya.

                        Jenis file dan perizinan yang mengikat file tersebut (perzinan meliputi perizinan User, Grup dan Others). Terdiri dari 10 karakter. Karakter pertama dari kolom pertama ini menunjukkan:

d= directory

-= regular file

l= Symbolic Link

s= Unix Domain Socket

p= named pipe

c= character device file

b= block device file

Dalam izin mengakses file di linux dibagi menjadi tiga jenis, yaitu read, write dan execute. yaitu sebagai berikut :

-Read: Pada file biasa, ini berarti file dapat di buka dan di baca. Jika pada sebuah direktori, berarti readers bisa melihat isi direktori tersebut.

-Write: Pada file biasa, ini berarti file dapat di modifikasi (menambah, mengubah, menghapus, mengubah nama file dalam direktori).

-Execute: Pada file biasa, ini berarti readers bisa menjalankan file sebagai program atau shell script. Pada sebuah direktori, execute (atau biasa di sebut ‘search bit’) memungkinkan readers untuk mengakses file dalam direktori misalnya : dengan perintah cd.

Berikut merupakan penjelasan dari properti sebuah file
m
Untuk melihat sebuah permission settings sebuah file gunakan perintah berikut ini :

1 -rw-rw-r– 1 user user 5 2011-10-02 12:03 nama_file

2 -rw-rw-r– 1 user user 5 2011-10-02 12:03 nama_file

Kita bisa melihat hak akses dari file dengan mengetikkan perintah di terminal # ls –l

Lalu sisa 9 karakter lainnya menyatakan perizinan. Dibagi menjadi 3 grup. Tiap grup berisi 3 karakter yang mewakili : read, write dan execute. Karakter tersebut mudah diingat, diantaranya:

r= read permission

w= write permission

x= execute permission

-= no permission

-Kolom kedua : menunjukkan jumlah Link (entri direktori yang merujuk ke file tersebut)

-Kolom ketiga : menunjukkan pemilik file

-Kolom keempat : menunjukan Grup pemilik file

-Kolom kelima : menunjukkan ukuran file dalam byte

-Kolom keenam, ketujuh dan kedelapan: menunjukan bulan dan tanggal terakhir di akses atau di modifikasi

-Kolom kesembilan : menunjukkan nama file

Cara mengatur hak akses

Kita dapat mengatur hak akses file dengan perintah chmod. Di chmod terdapat 2 mode yang bisa di gunakan untuk konfigurasi hak akses file yaitu dengan cara simbolik dan numerik.

Modul Simbolik:

Pertama : readers harus memutuskan apakah readers mengatur hak akses untuk pengguna (u), kelompok (g), pengguna lainnya (o), atau ketiganya (a).

Kedua : readers bisa menambahkan izin (+), menghapus (-), atau menghapus izin sebelumnya dan menambahkan izin yang baru (=)

Ketiga : tentukan perizinannya. Apakah readers mengatur izin read (r), write (w), execute (e), atau ketiganya.

Keempat : readers hanya tinggal memberikan perintah untuk chmod, hak akses mana yang akan di rubah.

Contoh perintah :

Image

Mode Numerik

Pada mode numeric, hak akses file diwakili angka, sebagaimana dijelaskan dibawah ini :

Image

Jadi, jika kita ingin mengubah hak akses pada user menjadi rwx berarti 4+2+1=7 begitu yang lainnya. Contoh :

Image

Selain dapat mengubah hak akses file, kita dapat merubah kepemilikan file dan direktori. Untuk mengubahnya dengan menggunakan perintah “chown”. Caranya yaitu sebagai berikut :

chown option pemilik_baru nama_file/direktori // untuk merubah kepemilikan file

chown –R pemilik_file nama_direktori_baru// untuk mengubah permission semua file yang ada dalam subdirektori dalam direktori yang sedang aktif.

Sumber:

Modul Praktikum Sistem Operasi : Manajemen File dan direktori oleh Asisten Dosen Sistem Operasi, Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia

Modul Praktikum Sistem Operasi : Linux file Permission oleh Asisten Dosen Sistem Operasi, Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia

http://www.tuxfiles.org/linuxhelp/filepermissions.html

E-book Tutorial Perintah Dasar Linux

 

 

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